منابع پایان نامه درمورد Education، evaluation، Reza Shah

knowledge base. Education system must be responsible for investing in the growth of knowledge for individual teachers and the profession as a whole, and for establishing policies, resources, and organizational structures that guarantee continuous opportunity for teacher learning.
The INTASC model standards are included in Appendix A.
CHAPTER II
Review of Literature
2.1 Introduction
There are three branches of English related majors in Iran among whom ELT teachers are recruited: literature, translation, and teaching, the most relevant branch to English teaching being the last one. The available programs are divided into two categories: general English course and special major courses. The aim of the first module is to enhance general English proficiency and that of the second one is to enhance students’ knowledge of their specific major. A third module which is just found in teaching major (and, of course, constitutes a small portion of the total program) is practical considerations of teaching manifested in the courses such as practicum.
2.2 Schooling in Iran
The Iranian educational system has long been influenced by various politics, ideologies, and philosophies. Javam (2003, cited in Pryor &Eslami-Rasekh, 2004) noted four major educational phases: pre-Islamic, Islamic, westernized education, and education after the Islamic Revolution. Religions in contemporary Iran include Shiah Muslim (89%), Sunni Muslim (9%), and Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha’i (2%).
Islam arrived in Iran by Arab invasion more than 1400 years ago in the year 637 A.D. Previously, Iranians were mostly Zoroastrians, one of the oldest of the revealed world-religions. Reza Shah founded the last Pahlavi dynasty (monarchy) and tried to restore Persian national pride and power. Westernized education reached its peak during the Pahlavi Monarchy in which Iran became a superficially westernized country; in part due to exposure to western ideology through cultural and educational exchanges during this period. Iran (formerly Persia) today is a predominantly Muslim country.
Iran changed from a monarchy to an Islamic Republic after the revolution of 1979. The following year, Ayatollah Khonmeini assigned a committee the task of reviewing the educational system and recommending a new program that captured the philosophy, culture, and religious ideals of Islamic Iran (Shahbazi, 1998).
Currently, the Iranian pre-university educational system stresses the importance of Islamic ideas in five main areas: student population, goals, staff, school environment, and curriculum- with the aim of creating a new generation of students with an Islamic personality in keeping with the principles of the Islamic Revolution (Kulayi, 2000). Commitment to Islam and loyalty to the Islamic revolution are key components for hiring and promoting staff members in schools and increased emphasis in the curriculum is placed upon ethical education. To reflect these changes, the textbooks have been purified to emphasize the ideology and politics of the Islamic Revolution (Shabhazi 1998).
These changes are exemplified in the Islamic philosophic approach to education as educators infuse Islamic ideology (such as seeking knowledge) into Iranian schools. Muslims posit that this placement emphasizes the importance of literacy education (Kulayi, 2000). Values such as knowledge, literacy, and loyalty to the Islamic revolution are essential, by definition, of an Iranian educator. Some educator conflict in this loyalty may be evident however, as advancements in technology, ease of communication, and an increase in the amount of international trade and travel impact the degree of modernity in Muslim countries such as Iran. With differing degrees of impact, transformation into a modern, liberal, and technological society is one possible future shift in educational approach.
2.3 Islamic Philosophy of Education
The examination of philosophic approaches to education in Iran begins as does all Muslim life with understanding the tenets and centrality of religion’s role-the Islamic belief – in Iranian society. At the core of Islamic beliefs is a fusion of balanced growth in personality through the training of the spirit, intellect, the rational self, feelings, and bodily senses (Riaz, 2000). To develop this core, Islamic education aims to prepare students in such a manner that their attitudes toward life, and their actions, decisions, and approaches to everyday matters of life are governed by the spiritual and ethical issues.
Muslim educators believe that the most important purpose of education is to prepare for a life of purity and sincerity. This total commitment to character building is based on the ideals of Islamic ethics and is considered the highest goal of education (Riaz, 2000). To foster this aim, students are taught to seek the glorification of God in achieving a state of morality and to act according to principles of Islamic righteousness. It is incumbent upon all Muslims to perform the best and most dignified acts within reach of one’s capacity. Islam’s utmost emphasis is on deed- acting upon what is learned (Rizvi, 1986).
Education in Islam emphasizes that for the comprehension of principles and the implicit meaning of articles of faith, it is imperative that scientific and technological knowledge be acquired and applied (Quddus, 1990). As a philosophical approach, utilizing the scientific perspective of knowledge may appear to come in conflict with the role of religion in Eastern teaching approaches; however, Islamic educators provide for a balanced view of philosophic integration (the use of several philosophic approaches).
Philosophic integration serves as a foundation for clarifying education’s social purpose, a continuous process necessary for the complete and balanced development of individuals. In Iran however, educational interpretation by secularists and religious thinkers vary in perspective, balancing between religious and secular values.
Many Islamic educational supporters believe that modern western education overemphasizes reason and rationality and encourages scientific inquiry at the expense of spirituality and faith. It has been highly challenging for Muslims to resist Western “liberalism” because all branches of knowledge have been affected by Western thought and Islamic substitutes for liberal concepts have not yet been created (Shahbazi, 1998). Islamic critics of “liberal education” believe that liberalism has created a perplexing variety of views and thoughts, without providing for the survival of Islamic values (Rizvi, 1986). Proponents of Islamic education believe that secular education and thinking generated by a modern scientific approach promotes attitudes of empiricism and creates doubt about the need to think in terms of religion (Riaz, 2000).
2.4 The Importance of Understanding Educational Philosophies
Ross (1992) defines the philosophy of education as an individual’s vision about the purpose and process of education. Understanding one’s philosophical orientation to teaching provides one with a foundation from which decisions may be made regarding appropriate and important content and its subsequent instructional methods (Oliva, 2005).
Wactler (1990) suggests that an educator’s most basic analytic skill is a foundational understanding of approaches to teaching. Carbone (1991) posits the term “teacher as philosopher” due to the strong link between teachers’ values, curriculum design, and implementation. Understanding one’s philosophical approach may provide teachers with a useful framework for differentiating instructional decisions supportive of the cultural and diverse needs of students (Hall, 2002).
Thus, similar to Beach and Lindahl’s (2004) reasoning that an educational leader must understand philosophies of planning in order to guide an organization, leaders must also understand international educational philosophies in order to enhance educational decisions that frame future social goals and international interactions. These philosophic understandings act as events or markers (Denzin& Lincoln 2003).
Research completed in the 1980s suggests that an intercultural exchange of events (in this case educational philosophies) can (a) foster a more comprehensive global perspective on approaches to teaching (Feinberg, 1989), (b) promote understanding of these approaches’ derivation in principles (Brousseau, 1987), and (c) eliminate unexplored, inter-global assumptions (UNESCO, 2003).
Feinberg (1989) suggests the desegregation of intercultural data as re normative -evaluation of data for perspectives known or unknown. For example, many Americans are confused about the differences between national affiliation (i.e., Arabs, Persians, Turks) and religious affiliation (Muslim and Islam) even though statistical surveys indicate that the five countries with the largest Muslim population are not Arab (Shabbas, 1998). Further, most Americans equate Islamists with Arabs, a misunderstanding that leads to fear/hate of those people (Shabbas, 1998). Therefore, the following sections, Islamic Philosophy of Education and Schooling in Iran, provide a brief historical, political, and religious background for this country.
2.5 Components of Teacher Preparation
Wilson, Floden, and Ferrini-Mundy (2001) find answers to five major questions that address key aspects of teacher preparation:
Question 1: What kinds of subject matter preparation, and how much of it, do

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