منابع پایان نامه درمورد motivation، Education، teacher education

Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE) Annual Meeting. New York, Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED502874.pdf
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Appendix A
INTASC MODEL STANDARDS FOR BEGINNING TEACHERS
Principle #1:
The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students.
Knowledge
The teacher understands major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline(s) s/he teaches.
The teacher understands how students’ conceptual frameworks and their misconceptions for an area of knowledge can influence their learning.
The teacher can relate his/her disciplinary knowledge to other subject areas.
Performances
The teacher effectively uses multiple representations and explanations of disciplinary concepts that capture key ideas and link them to students’ prior understandings.
The teacher can represent and use differing viewpoints, theories, “ways of knowing,” and methods of inquiry in his/her teaching of subject matter concepts.
The teacher can evaluate teaching resources and curriculum materials for their comprehensiveness, accuracy, and usefulness for representing particular ideas and concepts.
The teacher engages students in generating knowledge and testing hypotheses according to the methods of inquiry and standards of evidence used in the discipline.
The teacher develops and uses curricula that encourage students to see, question, and interpret ideas from diverse perspectives.
The teacher can create interdisciplinary learning experiences that allow students to integrate knowledge, skills, and methods of inquiry from several subject areas.
Principle #2: The teacher understands how children learn and develop, and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development.
Knowledge
The teacher understands how learning occurs-how students construct knowledge, acquire skills, and develop habits of mind-and knows how to use instructional strategies that promote student learning.
The teacher understands that students’ physical, social, emotional, moral and cognitive development influence learning and knows how to address these factors when making instructional decisions.
The teacher is aware of expected developmental progressions and ranges of individual variation within each domain (physical, social, emotional, moral, and cognitive), can identify levels of readiness in learning, and understands how development in any one domain may affect performance in others.
Performances
The teacher assesses individual and group performance in order to design instruction that meets learners’ current needs in each domain (cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and physical) and that leads to the next level of development.
The teacher stimulates student reflection on prior knowledge and links new ideas to already familiar ideas, making connections to students’ experiences, providing opportunities for active engagement, manipulation, and testing of ideas and materials, and encouraging students to assume responsibility for shaping their learning tasks.
The teacher accesses students’ thinking and experiences as a basis for instructional activities by, for example, encouraging discussion, listening and responding to group interaction, and eliciting samples of student thinking orally and in writing.
Principle #3: The teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners.
Knowledge
The teacher understands and can identify differences in approaches to learning and performance, including different learning styles, multiple intelligences, and performance modes, and can design instruction that helps use students’ strengths as the basis for growth.
The teacher knows about areas of exceptionality in learning-including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and special physical or mental challenges.
The teacher knows about the process of second language acquisition and about strategies to support the learning of students whose first language is not English.
The teacher understands how students’ learning is influenced by individual experiences, talents, and prior learning, as well as language, culture, family and community values.
The teacher has a well-grounded framework for understanding cultural and community diversity and knows how to learn about and incorporate students’ experiences, cultures, and community resources into instruction.
Performances
The teacher identifies and designs instruction appropriate to students’ stages of development, learning styles, strengths, and needs.
The teacher uses teaching approaches that are sensitive to the multiple experiences of learners and that address different learning and performance modes.
The teacher makes appropriate provisions (in terms of time and circumstances for work, tasks assigned, communication and response modes) for individual students who have particular learning differences or needs.
The teacher can identify when and how to access appropriate services or resources to meet exceptional learning needs.
The teacher seeks to understand students’ families, cultures, and communities, and uses this information as a basis for connecting instruction to students’ experiences (e.g., drawing explicit connections between subject matter and community matters, making assignments that can be related to students’ experiences and cultures).
The teacher brings multiple perspectives to the discussion of subject matter, including attention to students’ personal, family, and community experiences and cultural norms.
The teacher creates a learning community in which individual differences are respected.
Principle #4: The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills.
Knowledge
The teacher understands the cognitive processes associated with various kinds of learning (e.g., critical and creative thinking, problem structuring and problem solving, invention, memorization and recall) and how these processes can be stimulated.
The teacher understands principles and techniques, along with advantages and limitations, associated with various instructional strategies (e.g., cooperative learning, direct instruction, discovery learning, whole group discussion, independent study, interdisciplinary instruction).
The teacher knows how to enhance learning through the use of a wide variety of materials as well as human and technological resources (e.g., computers, audio-visual technologies, videotapes and discs, local experts, primary documents and artifacts, texts, reference books, literature, and other print resources).
Performances
The teacher carefully evaluates how to achieve learning goals, choosing alternative teaching strategies and materials to achieve different instructional purposes and to meet student needs (e.g., developmental stages, prior knowledge, learning styles, and interests).
The teacher uses multiple teaching and learning strategies to engage students in active learning opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance capabilities and that help student assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources.
The teacher constantly monitors and adjusts strategies in response to learner feedback.
The teacher varies his or her role in the instructional process (e.g., instructor, facilitator, coach, audience) in relation to the content and purposes of instruction and the needs of students.
The teacher develops a variety of clear, accurate presentations and representations of concepts, using alternative explanations to assist students’ understanding and presenting diverse perspectives to encourage critical thinking.
Principle #5: The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation.
Knowledge
The teacher can use knowledge about human motivation and behavior drawn from the foundational sciences of psychology, anthropology, and sociology to develop strategies for organizing and supporting individual and group work.
The teacher understands how social groups function and influence people, and how people influence groups.
The teacher knows how to help people work productively and cooperatively with each other in complex social settings.
The teacher understands the principles of effective classroom management and can use a range of strategies to promote positive relationships, cooperation, and purposeful learning in the

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