منابع پایان نامه درمورد teacher education، Education، tradition

80
5.4 Pedagogical Implications 82
5.5. Suggestions for Further Research 83
REFRENCES 85
APPENDICES 111
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Nafiseh Salehi for her continued guidance, helpful comments, and mentoring me through the process of completing this thesis by answering all of my questions very patiently. I would also like to thank all my professors in Semnan Azad University for all I have learned from them and all of the teachers who participated in this study, too. My deepest appreciation and love go to my family that supported me during my educational life, especially to my husband who always accompanied me.
ABSTRACT
English teachers need to be well-equipped at both knowledge and performance levels to meet their needs in real teaching practices. This study was conducted to investigate the Iranian foreign language teachers’ knowledge and performance based on INTASC model standards. Two questionnaires (knowledge and performance) were adopted using INTASC (2011) model and used in this study. The participants of this study were 70 EFL Junior high school teachers of Tehran Province that selected randomly. This study investigated the levels of English teachers’ knowledge and performance and also revealed the relationship between teachers’ knowledge and performance, as well as, identifying the teachers’
knowledge could predict their performance. The results indicated the strong and weak points of English teacher education programs in Iran.
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Demographic information of the participant………………………………54
Table 4.1: Distribution of English Teachers’ Knowledge Score…………………………59
Table 4.2: Contingency Table for the knowledge Two-Way Chi-Square Analysis …60
Table 4.3: Distribution of English Teachers’ Performance Score……………………61
Table 4.4: Contingency Table for the Performance Two-Way Chi-Square Analysis..62
Table 4.5: Correlation Coefficient of Teachers’ Knowledge and Performance……. . 63
Table 4.6: Model of Regression Teachers’ performance Component…………….. … 64
Table 4.7: Statistics of Item8, 10, and 11……………………………………………..67
Table 4.8: Statistics of Item 29………………………………………………………….69
Table 4.9: Statistics of Item 14…………………………………………………………70
Table 4.10: Statistics of Item 40………………………………………………………72
Table 4.11: Statistics of Item 42………………………………………………………73
Table 4.12: Statistics of Item 3……………………………………………………….74
CHAPTER I
Background and Purpose
1.1 Introduction
English is being treated as a world language because of its vast presence in schools all over the world. Students are being taught that English is an international language. School study is an important phase in students’ life (Kannan, 2009).
Students are the precious assets of any society. Well-being of society depends upon its students because these are the students who will take the responsibility of the success of the society in future and in achieving this goal, teachers play extremely important roles. They are the sources of guidance at many crucial steps in academic life. When teachers are qualified, they can perform their responsibilities with more concentration, devotion, and competence.
At the same time, education is one of the crucial elements in the life of all the human beings. According to Noordin and Jusoff (2009) societal expectations depends upon the successful running of the education system.
All the students around the world deserve qualified teachers. So, “there is a pressing need for education for teachers at all stages in their
careers which aims to prepare or upgrade teachers’ knowledge and skills” (Ballantyne, Sanderman, & Levy, 2008, p.10).
1.2 Teacher Education
The success of the educational system depends upon the involvement, effort, and the contribution of the academic staff or their professional expertise.
1.2.1 Issues in Teacher Education
The major issues that are discussed in teacher education according to Townsend and Bates (2007) are:
? Globalization and diversity,
? Standards and accountability,
? Teacher preparation,
? Teacher induction,
? Continuous development of teachers,
? The reflective practitioner, and
? The impact of technology.
1.2.2 Teacher Preparation
Children make the future of every country and education is a future-oriented business because it aims to prepare the children for the future. So teacher education is even a more future-oriented business because it aims to prepare teachers for future educational purposes of future citizens (Zhao, 2010). Moreover, it is not just preparing any teacher that is important. It is very important to prepare the right teacher, with the right skills for the right situation (Townsend & Bates, 2007).
The term teacher education was traditionally used to mean pre-service teacher preparation before being a teacher and joining the teaching profession (Al-Weher& Abu-Jaber , 2007), but in this study “teacher education” and “pre-service teacher training programs” are used interchangeably.
Darling-Hammond, Wei, and Johnson (2008) demonstrate a relationship between teacher education and teacher effectiveness according to various ines of research. Teacher effectiveness affects student learning, so the importance of teacher preparation and teacher learning would become clear.
Moon, Brown, and Ben-Peretz(2000, p.733) have divided teacher education into three stages:
initial teacher education ( pre-service preparation before entering the classroom as a teacher),beginning teacher induction (the process of providing training and support during the first few years of teaching or the first year in a particular school),and continuing professional development (an in-service process for practicing teachers).
1.2.3 Pre-service Teacher Education
Pre-service teacher educations the training provided before employment of teachers and is generally a pre requisite for it. It is aimed at professional growth of the teacher and is planned and provided in such a way that it leads to the development in him a positive attitude towards education and towards improving his own performance in terms of better student learning.
According to Stover and members of National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE, 2006), English teacher preparation programs are to provide future English teachers with “the confidence in themselves, the knowledge of students, the understanding of their discipline, the awareness of the ways in which context affects education, and the need to make the appropriate choices. The choices are about the goals, objectives, materials, strategies, and assessments. This helps as many students as possible learn and grow in skill, content knowledge, and understanding of self and others. English teacher preparation programs are also going to provide multiple, diverse, logically sequenced, and well-supervised opportunities for the future English teachers to turn theory into practice and hone these abilities .”The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) presents six standards for accreditation of teacher preparation programs .The six NCATE standards are:
Standard 1: candidate knowledge, skills, and dispositions;
Standard 2: assessment system and unit evaluation;
Standard 3: field experiences and clinical practice;
Standard 4: diversity;
Standard 5: faculty qualifications, performance, and development; and
Standard 6: unit governance and resources”(NCATE, 2007, cited in Ballantyne, Sanderman, & Levy, 2008, p. 13).
The first above mentioned standard is surveyed in this study.
“There are five conceptual orientations for teacher education:
? the academic orientation,
? the practical orientation,
? technological orientation,
? the personal orientation; and
? the critical/social orientation” (Feiman-Nissmer, 1990, as cited in Al-Weher& Abu-Jaber , 2007, pp. 242-243).
1.2.4 In-service Teacher Education
In-service teacher education is an ongoing process that goes on continuously throughout the educational life of a teacher. As one does not finish learning with graduation, the teacher’s training likewise goes on improving with the passage of time by gaining experience and study through-out the life span of a teacher.
In-service teacher training refers to all those activities that contribute to professional growth and qualifications of an employee like reading educational generals, participating workshops, seminars, conferences, and visits to educational institutions that give the employee a sense of security and a feeling of self confidence while discharging his routine duties in the school. It is a continuing education of teachers and other educational workers leading to the improvement of

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