منابع پایان نامه درمورد teacher education، language teaching، Globalization

that teacher students should meet an optimum level of language proficiency before they start teaching. In addition, it was concluded that the balance between recent theories and practice should also be observed, and more practical teaching should be provided for teacher students.
Salehi (2011) conducted the study aiming at exploring high school English teachers’ conceptions and experiences about the contribution of the EFL pre-service courses in providing them with the knowledge and skills required for their teaching practice.
2.10 Globalization
Globalization has already affected our economic, social, and cultural life significantly. (Angus, 2007; Zhao, 2010); We need to help our students with developing the appropriate skills, knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives to live successfully and peacefully in this globalized world, so on one hand, we need extraordinary and exemplary teachers who can act as global citizens and understand the global system in a globally oriented education. To prepare this new generation of teachers, we need a teacher education system that is globally oriented. (Zhao, 2010); On the other hand, we need teachers who “could affirm the possibilities of a different world, based not so much on the globalizing mission to produce sameness but grounded in an enduring respect for our diversity” (Jansen, 2007, p. 39).
Millions of people are now learning English as a global language all over the world that allows international communication in the global economy and helps people be exposed to the competitive and interdependent world. (Jie-ying, 2011)
Morgan and Ramanathan (2005, as cited in Norton, 2008) argue that there is a need to de-center the authority that Western interests have in the language teaching industry and the field of language education needs to consider ways in which English language teaching can be decolonized in periphery communities. According to Norton, globalization and language learning include an area that has much potential for future research on critical pedagogies.
As mentioned earlier, all these studies focused on micro-skills and it seems that the investigation of teachers’ knowledge and performance has not been researched much so far. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of teachers’ knowledge and performance. It will be based on the data collected by means of questionnaires using INTASC model at the levels of knowledge and performance.
2.11 Standards and Accountability
Standard is defined as a level of quality. The distinction between standards and quality can be explained as outcomes and processes (Bakioglu&Hacifazlioglu, 2007). The mission of The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards according to Baratz-Snowden (1990, as cited in Sato, Chung, & Darling-Hammond, 2008) is to establish high and rigorous standards for what accomplished teachers should know and be able to do with the purpose of improving student learning. The “Preparing a Profession” report of the National Standards and Guidelines for Initial Teacher Education Project states that “a way to work towards common goals, outcomes and standards for initial teacher education was necessary” (Kiggins&Cambourne, 2007, p. 367).
According to Donaldson (2012), in initial teacher education, standards which define what the teachers are expected to know and to be able to do, can act as a guide both to the content to be covered and to criteria for assessment. The standards can signal expectations about the reflexive relationship between theory and practice and establish a clear expectation that the pre-service programs will equip students with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that the standards require.
As cited in World Bank, Human Development Unit South Asia Region (2009), accountability may be measured by indicators such as teacher attendance, actual time spent teaching, and preparing lessons during the school day, pedagogical techniques, homework assignment and review, continuous assessment practices, and ultimately, student learning.
2.12 Chapter Summary
Chapter two is the review of literature of the research. This research was about the Iranian English teachers’ knowledge and performance. So, the researcher reviewed the Islamic philosophy of education and schooling in Iran. In addition, the teacher education system of Iran and some other countries were discussed. The studies about evaluation of teachers’ knowledge, performance, disposition and efficiency were stated too.
CHAPTER III
Methodology
3.1 Overview
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the knowledge and performance of Iranian language teachers and the relationship between their knowledge and performance level. It aims to reveal that whether the teachers’ knowledge can predict the performance of teachers or not. In order to achieve this end, in this chapter the characteristics of the participants, the instrument, the procedure and the design of the study are discussed.
3.2 Subjects
The sample employed in this study consisted of 70 English teachers. They were Junior high school English teachers with different degrees of education from bachelor to MA. They were selected randomly from the list of all Junior high school language teachers teaching at Tehran Province for the education department. The majority of subjects were female teachers. Their age ranged from 25 to above 45 with different years of experience.(See Table 3.1)
Table 3.1
Demographic information of the participants
Feature
Sub-division
Frequency
Percentage
gender
male
18
25%
female
52
75%
Age
25-29
4
6%
30-34
17
24%
35-39
31
45%
40-45
18
25%
Feature
Sub-division
Frequency
Percentage
City
Tehran
10
14%
Rey
10
14%
Gharchak
33
47%
Varamin
17
25%
Field of
study
TEFL
56
80%
English translation
9
13%
English literature
5
7%
Level of Qualification
PHD

MA
6
8%
BA
64
92%
Place of Teaching
High school
7
10%
Junior high school
63
90%
Years
Of teaching
experience
1-5
30
42%
5-10
15
21%
10-15
15
21%
15-20
10
16%
3.3 Instrument
There were two questionnaires in this research. They were knowledge and performance questionnaires in a five level Likert scale.
3.3.1 The teacher’s Knowledge
A questionnaire consisting of 30 items (which contain teachers’ knowledge component of ten principles of INTASC model standards) was used to measure the teachers’ knowledge.
3.3.2 The teacher’s Performance
A questionnaire consisting of 52 items (which contain teachers’ performances component of ten principles of INTASC model standards) was used to measure teachers’ performance.
For the above questionnaires, you can refer to Appendix C.
3.4 Procedure
In order to conduct this research, the researcher first asked the manager of education organization of Tehran province for his permission. After gaining permission, the researcher coordinated with the managers of schools to distribute the questionnaires. The questionnaires were sent to schools and distributed by managers. A letter was also sent to specify the goal of the study and finally the teachers in all of the schools helped the researcher and answered the questions. The teachers were required to fill out the questionnaire in private and give it back to their managers.
The collected data was statistically analyzed. The teachers response to knowledge and performances questionnaires ranged from strongly disagree to strongly agree which were scored from 1 to 5. The responses of participants to each questionnaire were tallied up. Then the frequency of the participants’ responses to each questionnaire were calculated.
The mean scores of Iranian English teachers’ knowledge and performance(as an indicator of central tendency), SD, and SE (as an indicator of the dispersion of the set of scores) were calculated for the purpose of the description of the data characteristics.
3.5 Research Design
This study was taken under the form of survey research that yields descriptive information about English teachers’ knowledge and performances. Descriptive research involves different techniques to specify, delineate, or describe natural occurring phenomena without experimental manipulation; Surveys and questionnaires are useful for collecting data from large groups of subjects (Seliger&Shohamy, 1989).Survey studies focus on a group’s attitudes, opinions, and/or characteristics which often take the form of a questionnaire (Brown, 1988).
3.6 Data Analysis
This study aimed to investigate the level of teachers’ knowledge and performance based on INTASC model, the relationship between them. It also aimed to predict the teachers’ performance through their knowledge. All of these procedures were done by SPSS version 16. With the help of SPSS, the researcher correlated between items and regression was used for prediction.
3.7 Chapter Summary
Chapter Three was methodology and the researcher stated about the subjects, who were 70 teachers from Tehran education organization. The instrument was a questionnaire which estimated the knowledge and performance of English teachers. All of the details about the questionnaire were given in Appendix A. Finally the design of the research was correlation.
CHAPTER IV
Results and Discussion
4.1 Overview
This chapter presents the analyses and the results of this study. The research questions were

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