منابع پایان نامه درمورد teacher education

n best by hearing the language, others by seeing visual representations, while others learn best by writing out words or manipulating objects. To address the diverse learning styles of students, teachers plan and use a variety of instructional strategies in order to adapt learning opportunities for all students(Mumford, 1992).
According to Table 4.8,and 4.9, two lowest mean scores of the participants’ responses to knowledge questionnaire are 2.91.
Table 4.8
Statistics of Item 29
Percent
Frequency
Item 29
(Score)
4.5
3
1
18.5
13
2
51.5
36
3
11.5
8
4
14
10
5
100
70
Total
M = 2.91 SE = .9
SD = 1.14 V = 1.30
Item 29 is one of the subcategories of principle 10 of INTASC model.
Principle #10: The teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support students’ learning and well-being.
The findings of the participants’ responses to this item are not satisfactory.
The teachers should know that teaching is not as easy as presenting information and assigning work; teaching, like any form of communication, is a two-way
street. There needs to make teachers familiarize with the necessity the relationships
beyond the classroom and within the school and community to support student learning and well being. These relationships include interactions with families of students, government agencies, community resources, and local media.
Language teachers should understand that they do not work in isolation and that their students, classrooms, and schools are situated within wider social networks. The school principals recognize their responsibility to develop relationships with colleagues by providing the opportunities in their schools.
Item 14 is a subcategory of principle 4 of INTASC model about professional learning.
Table 4.9
Statistics of Item 14
Percent
Frequency
Item 14
(Score)
4.5
3
1
18.5
13
2
17
12
3
43
30
4
17
12
5
100
70
Total
M = 3.09 SE = .09
SD = 1.15 V = 1.33
Principle #4: The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills.
Based on Table 4.9, the mean score of the participants’ response to this item is3.09. The standard error of mean is .09, standard deviation is 1.14, and the variance is 1.33. The frequency of the most chosen answer is 33. It means that 40.5% of the participants have agreed with it. The results of the participants’ response indicate the need for further research into this subject .
Language teachers design and use instructional strategies that are appropriate to curricular goals and instructional objectives, and that take into consideration student groupings, modeling, pacing and time management, monitoring, feedback, and sequencing. They reflect upon and adjust their strategies based on student performance in relation to language learning objectives and the needs of the class and individual students (Darling-Hammond, 2010).
The language teachers should learn different strategies that can effectively convey their message and encourage students to negotiate meaning with each other.
4.3.2 Comparing the participants’ responses to performance questionnaire
The participants answered to 52 items of the performance questionnaire .
The highest mean scores of the participants’ responses to performance questionnaire are 4.72 and 4.69. They are related to items40 and 42 which are related to the principle 7 of INTASC model. Each one is analyzed respectively:
Table 4.10
Statistics of Item 40
Percent
Frequency
Item 40
(Score)
1
3
2
2
17
12
3
51
36
4
29
20
5
100
70
Total
M = 4.72 SE = .69
SD = 8.21 V = 66.78
According to Table 4.10, all of the participants have answered the item40 .The mean score of the participants’ responses to this item is 4.72 out of 5 .The frequency of the most chosen answer is 80. In other words, 54.4% of the participants have agreed with item 40.
Table 4.11
Statistics of Item 42
Percent
Frequency
Item 42
(Score)
1.5
1
1
7
5
2
20
14
3
51.5
36
4
20
14
5
100
70
Total
M = 4.69 SE = .7
SD = 8.22 V = 67.95
Based on Table 4.11, the mean score of the participants’ responses to item 42 is 4.69 out of 5.
The frequency of the most chosen answer is 82 and the percentage of the most chosen answer is 55.8. In other words, 55.8% of the participants have agreed with item 42.
Principle #7: The teacher plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals.
The results showed that the Iranian language teachers can create short-range and long-term plans that are linked to student needs, and adapts the plans to students progress .
The lowest mean score of the participants’ response to performance questionnaire is 3.08 that related to items 3 of principle 1 of INTASC model.
Table 4.12
Statistics of Item 3
Percent
Frequency
Item 3
(Score)
4
3
1
17
12
2
23
16
3
43
30
4
13
9
5
100
70
Total
M = 3.08 SE = .09
SD = 1.14 V = 1.31
Principle #1:
The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline (s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students.
According to Table 4.121, all of 70 participants have answered this item. The frequency of the most chosen answer is 35. It means that 42.5% of the participants have agreed with them. The results of this item showed that 57.5% of the participants do not agree with item 3 while the teacher should familiarize with the curriculum materials to choose the best for teaching the particular points, if teachers do not know the new teaching resources cannot evaluate them.
Instructors of teacher education programs must bridge the gap between theory and practice by providing opportunities for reflective teaching.
In addition opportunities must be provided for student teachers to practice their theories in real situations.
The difference between the highest and lowest mean scores of the participants’ responses is very little and most of the participants have agreed rather than disagreed with knowledge and performance standards.
4.4 Chapter Summary
Chapter four focused on data analyses. In this study, in order to answer the first and second questions, the frequency and percentage were computed to estimate the level of teachers’ knowledge and performance. The results showed that the knowledge and performance level in Iranian foreign language teachers were moderate. To answer the third question, the correlation was computed; the findings revealed the positive correlation between teachers’ knowledge and performance. The regression was also computed and showed that teachers’ knowledge could be used for predicting the teachers’ performance.
CHAPTER V
Conclusion, Pedagogical Implications, and
Suggestions for further Research
5.1 Overview
This chapter starts with a summary of the whole study, including its purpose, methods, and major findings. Based on the findings of this study, conclusions have been drawn, followed by implications and suggestions for further research.
5.2 Restatement of Findings
The present study was designed to determine the level of teachers’ knowledge and performance based on the INTASC model standards, the relationship between knowledge and performance among English teachers teaching in Junior high schools at Tehran province; then the regression was also computed. In this investigation, the aims were:
To examine the level of English teachers’ knowledge .
To examine the level of English teachers’ performance.
To estimate the relationship between the knowledge and performance of English teachers.
To understand if the teachers’ knowledge can predict the performance in English teachers.
The results of the study indicated the level of knowledge and performance of teachers are higher than the average score. In addition it showed that there is positive relationship between teachers’ knowledge and performance, and the knowledge could predict the performance in English teachers.
According to the data in Table 4.1, the mean of English teachers’ knowledge score is 3.27, its SD is .22, its SE is .03; its minimum score is 2.91 and its maximum score is 3.69.
Based on the Table 4.2, the mean of English teachers’ performance score is 3.73, its Standard Deviation is .45, its Standard Error is .06; its minimum score is 3.09 and its maximum score is 4.73.
The correlation coefficient is significant. The positive correlation exists between knowledge and performance of teachers (r= .5). It means that if teachers’ knowledge increases, the teachers’

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