منابع پایان نامه درمورد evaluation، teacher education

classroom management, and content knowledge. They believe that the problems must be handled by more rigorous training in the weak areas.
2.8 Issues in the Investigation of Teachers
A teacher is a person that demonstrates how to perform particular tasks, directs you on the path of endless possibilities, instills morals along with integrity, and reveals a wondrous world of learning (Brown, 2010). Methods of evaluation of teachers are different. Based on Stiger (2007) evaluations should provide all teachers with regular feedback that helps them grow as professionals, no matter how long they have been in the classroom. Evaluations should give schools the information they need to build the strongest possible instructional teams, and help school leaders for supporting each teacher’s development. A teacher’s most important responsibility is to help students learn, yet student academic progress rarely factors directly into evaluations. Instead, teachers are often evaluated based on superficial judgments about behaviors and practices that may not have any impact on student learning like the presentation of their bulletin boards. Therefore, measures of student learning should play a predominant role in teacher evaluations. This does not mean that teacher evaluations should be based solely on the results of standardized tests, or based on the results of any single assessment. But it does mean that teachers should be accountable for helping students make measurable progress against ambitious learning standards.
Teachers contribute to student learning in ways that can largely be observed and measured. Through focused, rigorous observation of classroom practice, examination of student work, and analysis of students’ performance on high-quality assessments, it is possible to accurately distinguish effective teaching from ineffective teaching. Great teachers vary widely in their instructional style and approach, but they all share a powerful ability to nurture student academic growth.
All teachers should be evaluated at least annually. Evaluations should be based on clear standards of instructional excellence that prioritize student learning.
Annual evaluation is the only way to ensure that all teachers regardless of their ability level or years of experience get the ongoing feedback on their performance that all professionals deserve. This approach recognizes that a teacher’s effectiveness and developmental needs may change over time, and it sends a message to school leaders that they are accountable for helping all their teachers grow as professionals. The ratings from annual evaluations will also allow schools to make important employment decisions based on up-to-date information.
Many teachers especially more experienced teachers aren’t evaluated every year. These teachers might go years between receiving any meaningful feedback on their performance. If we want good teaching in every classroom, good teaching must be valued. No evaluation system can be perfect in teaching or in any other profession. But we can develop systems that are dramatically better than current ones, and that teachers and school leaders believe are fair and accurate. Once we do, we should use them and improve on them.
There are many researches about various aspects of the teachers or teaching process that some of them are mentioned below.
2.8.1 Investigation of Teachers’ Knowledge
To be able to assess teacher knowledge relating to technology in teaching and learning, valid and reliable measurement tools are necessary which include both self-reporting and performance-based measures.
Shulman (1987, as cited in Borowski, et al., 2012) categorizes teachers’ knowledge into seven categories of content knowledge; curricular knowledge; pedagogical content knowledge; general pedagogical knowledge; knowledge of learners and their characteristics; knowledge of educational contexts; and knowledge of educational ends, purposes and values. Many researchers believe that pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is an important topic in science education.
To consolidate different point of views on PCK in the natural sciences, Borowski, et al. select several researchers who use qualitative and quantitative methods to connect biology, chemistry, and physics PCK research. For example, a large-scale paper-and-pencil model for measuring Physics PCK has been developed that shows the expected results: teachers who did not study or teach physics got poor results. Physics Gymnasium (GY) teachers were shown to have a significantly higher PCK than teachers teaching at lower level school tracks.
The existence of different PCK models has resulted in different tools developed and used to measure teachers’ professional knowledge as well as focusing on the relationship between teachers’ PCK and their other knowledge bases or the relationship between teachers’ PCK and student achievement. The hope is to create stronger synergy in research definitions, tools, methods, and assumptions to improve teacher knowledge and practice.
Abbitt (2011) assesses the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in the context of pre-service teacher preparation programs. The interplay among pre-service teachers’ knowledge of pedagogy, content, and technology shows that the integration of technology into teaching and learning places some affordances and constraints on content and pedagogy. Abbitt quotes some cases, in all of which the TPACK constructs cause positive changes concerning a higher level of thought and activity during the course.
Rowan (2001) discuss their rationale for using a survey instrument to measure teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and report on the results of a pilot study in which a bank of survey items was developed to directly measure this construct in two domains of the elementary school curriculum: reading/ language arts and mathematics. Although they demonstrate that particular facets of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge can be measured reliably with as few as 6 – 10 survey items, a great deal more effort in developing item banks will be needed in order to measure teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge generally.
Hill, Ball, and Schilling (2008) express that few researchers have focused on conceptualizing teacher knowledge, and even fewer researchers have tried to measure this knowledge. They describe their effort to conceptualize and develop measures of teacher’s knowledge of mathematical content and students by writing, piloting, and analyzing results from multiple-choice items. In conclusion and discussion, they themselves refer to their deficient results and state that this domain still remains under-conceptualized and understudied.
They also express that the scales are unreliable and poorly targeted to measure less-than-knowledgeable teachers’ knowledge sufficiently. As they refer to multidimensionality of teachers’ knowledge in their theoretical work, which originally formulated by Shulman, in my opinion, measuring knowledge, especially mathematical knowledge through multiple-choice items, although not time-consuming, is not logical at all.
Adediwura and Tayo (2007) investigate the effect of students’ perception of teachers’ knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students’ academic performance. A questionnaire with four sections was developed and administered on 1600 students from 15 secondary schools in the South West Nigeria. The results show that students’ perception of teachers’ knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills has a significant relationship on students’ academic performance.
2.8.2 Investigation of Teachers’ Performance
Darling-Hammond (2010) reports the progress to achieve a system of reliable, valid, and nationally available performance assessments which would create a useful and common standard for the profession of teaching and consequently would improve the professional learning. The Council of Chief State School Officers created related standards for beginning teacher licensing that reflect professional teaching standards and incorporate student learning standards.
Teacher performance assessments for new teachers have been developed for use either in teacher education for the initial licensing recommendation, or in the teacher induction period for moving from a probationary to a professional license. These assessments require teachers to document their plans and teaching for a unit of instruction, videotape and analyze their teaching, and collect and evaluate evidence of student learning. These pieces of evidence are then scored by raters consistently, based on the standards of best practice. These assessments measure teacher effectiveness and help teachers develop greater effectiveness.
The Jackson Public School District (JPS, 2009) has developed a performance evaluation system for teachers. Eighteen criteria for teachers include productive teaching techniques; student achievement; organized, structured class management; positive interpersonal relations; and employee responsibilities. The system recognizes the need for orienting, inducting, and evaluating new or experienced employees and offering professional growth options for commendable teachers who deserve an array of choices in meeting evaluation and growth goals. The teachers, their colleagues, the students, and also their parents evaluate the teachers and provide feedback to them.
2.8.3 Investigation of Teachers’ Disposition
Wilkerson and Lang (2008) use

مطلب مرتبط :   مقاله رایگان درموردکسب و کار، عملکرد شرکت، توسعه بازار

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