منابع پایان نامه درمورد teacher education، Education، language teaching

prospective teachers need? It is no surprise that research shows a positive connection between teachers’ preparation in their subject matter and their performance and impact in the classroom. Subject-specific methods courses in education are useful too. But, there is little definitive research on the kinds or amount of subject matter preparation to support the popular belief that “more subject matter study is always better”. Research suggests that changes in teachers’ subject matter preparation may be needed, and that the solution is more complicated than simply requiring a major or more subject matter courses.
Question 2: What kinds of pedagogical preparation, and how much of it, do prospective teachers need? Pedagogical preparation includes the various courses that teachers take in areas such as instructional methods, learning theories, foundations of education, and classroom management. Studies reinforce the view that the pedagogical aspects of teacher preparation affect both teaching practice and student achievement. But, the results of many studies give little insight into which aspects of pedagogical preparation are most critical.
Question 3: What kinds, timing, and amount of clinical training (student teaching) best equip prospective teachers for classroom practice? Experienced and newly certified teachers alike see clinical experiences as the most powerful element of teacher preparation. Research shows that field experiences are often disconnected from the university-based components of teacher education or are sometimes limited to mechanical aspects of teaching. Research shows that prospective teachers’ conceptions of the teaching and learning of a subject matter can be transformed, stereotypical views can shift, and more significant learning can occur though well-structured field experiences in real classrooms.
Question 4: What policies and strategies have been used successfully by states, universities, school districts, and other organizations to improve and sustain the quality of pre-service teacher education? The researchers suggest a basis for examining questions about revised certification systems, state approval mechanisms, and national accreditation and their effects on the preparation of teachers. In addition, research-based examinations of accountability systems and collaborative partnerships with schools hold promise for the improvement of teacher-education program quality.
Question 5: What are the components and characteristics of high quality alternative certification programs? This question is not directly related to the preset Clift (1991) describes the first 2 years of one young woman’s experiences in learning to teach secondary school English.
Analysis of her response to three problematic incidents she encountered during her pre-service preparation suggests that developing knowledge for the teaching of English includes the intersection of knowledge schemes for literary analysis, the teaching of literature and language, planning for instruction, assessment and evaluation, group management, pedagogical problem solving, student diversity, and self-image as a teacher. Although she did not believe that she had achieved a high level of sophisticated knowledge in these areas, she drew upon them frequently as she began teaching. This study documents her perceived gaps in knowledge as she worked through instructional problems, the resources she used to elaborate upon her prior knowledge, and her short-term resolution of problematic issues.
2.6 History: Teacher Education in Iran
There is no official statistics showing how much these general English courses have been successful to enhance teachers’ proficiency. But what can be inferred from observing classroom practices is that unfortunately many of our English teachers suffer from lack of enough proficiency to handle their own duties perfectly. Many of English classes are conducted in Farsi (though teachers’ proficiency is not the only influential factor in this regard).
Theoretically speaking, teacher education programs have been successful in enhancing student teachers’ theoretical knowledge; that is, they know about the theoretical underpinnings, history of language teaching, and various methodologies and their principles. However, the problem arises when as this knowledge is going to be practiced in action. In other words, there is little, if any, opportunity for student teachers to practice what they have been told in books. Therefore, they do not know the potential of each methodology and come across a reality shock as they enter the real world of teaching. Moreover, university professors are considered as the sole source of information for student teachers. This kind of knowledge is provided through a traditional process-product procedure.
Practical courses are so scarce that little opportunity is provided for student teachers to practice the real atmosphere of the classroom. Furthermore, usually they do not enjoy the feedback of experienced teachers with respect to their teaching. Also, the process of their socialization into the teaching world usually is accompanied by no support from academic communities. That is why the teaching profession in Iran is a matter of sink or swim.
In Iran, both pre-service and in-service teacher training programs are used. However, there is no induction, there is no support for new-employed teachers. But as Roth and Swail (2000) claim, the ‘induction’ programs are considered as one of the most important part of teacher education, considering that the first year is often the most difficult year that a teacher experiences. Although fortunately, Teachers’ University is supposed to be organized for the teachers who do not have a Bachelor’s degree in 2012.
Noor Rahmani(2012) conducted a research about needs assessment of in-service training in Iran. The research findings show that the teachers in each of the modern models components of teaching need to be trained for improvement and effectiveness of their performance in teaching and it is better for them to attend in-service courses in order to have a greater role in students progress and success.
2.7 Teacher Education in Other Countries
Different developed and developing countries have studied, surveyed, and assessed education, teacher education, pre-service teacher education, and English pre-service teacher education in particular nationally.
Brophy (1999) states that the International Bureau of Education (IBE) was founded in Geneva in 1925 as a private institution. In 1929, it became the first intergovernmental organization in the field of education. In 1969, the IBE joined UNESCO with different lines of action such as undertaking surveys and studies in the field of education.
According to the UNESCO report on teacher training (1995, as cited in Myreddi& Narayan, 2000), only 48 countries out of the 63 countries have given adequate information on teacher training programs.
The practical component of teacher training programs was the most inadequate component while Cole and Knowles (1997) proposed a curriculum and pedagogy for teacher education which are based on reflexive and situational inquiry within the field experience component of pre-service teacher education.
Aleotti (1991) discusses Brazilian teacher education and concluded that problems can be solved in association with other professional, academic, and social problems; economic conditions are the source of most obstacles to change and quality is the key to making the issues effective.
2.7.1 Evaluation of Teacher Education in Turkey
Coskun and Daloglu (2010) pay attention to the importance of program evaluation for teacher education programs and reveal the strengths and weaknesses of pre-service English teacher education program in a Turkish university by using Peacock’s (2009) evaluation model. The most common strength of the program is that the program provides student teachers with effective theoretical background in ELT. Another strength of the program is that the students and teachers are allowed to decide on the content of some courses. The weaknesses are: (a) lack of practice opportunities, (b) overuse of presentations as a teaching technique, and (c) lack of assessment of instructor by student teachers
Ekmekci (1992) discusses the teacher training program in English language teaching department at Cukurova University in Turkey and believes that not enough emphasis is put on the methodological aspect of language teaching and students are confronted with some problems during the practice sessions.
2.7.2Evaluation of Teacher Education in India
The teacher training program in India suffers from poor quality standards, weak accreditation and monitoring, and official focus on inputs rather than on results. Shortage of resources; limited exposure to modern teaching, learning methods and materials; isolation and outdated pedagogy without connections to the international community of teacher educators and education researchers; and poor responsiveness to demand for teachers also exist as widespread problems in India’s teacher training programs (World Bank, Human Development Unit South Asia Region, 2009).
2.7.3 Evaluation of Teacher Education in Pakistan
Sarwar and Hussain (2010) discuss the problems and solutions for Pakistan’s student teaching preparatory programs. They acknowledge that Pakistani teacher education institutions prepare teachers without considering the needs of the schools; the trainee-teachers are weak in discipline, lesson planning,

مطلب مرتبط :   منابع و ماخذ پایان نامهاستان ایلام، طبقه بندی

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید