منابع پایان نامه درمورد teacher education، motivation، Assessment

of the teacher in the classroom, then the selection and preparation of these teachers are of significant social concern.
Concerted efforts must be made, therefore, to produce the best teacher a nation can afford. Furthermore, teacher education provides a vital link between a nation’s institutions of higher learning and the public they are designed to serve. Not all youth, even in the most affluent societies, can personally and directly be enrolled in college or university. The benefits of higher education to the majority of the population are thus generally transmitted by the teacher who is a product of this higher education. The institutions that educate teachers, the teacher educators themselves, and the governmental departments concerned with teacher education are thus clearly a part of the nation’s overall strategy in the development process.
As teacher- training plays a fundamental role in the country’s education planning and social and scientific progress, all institutions concerned with teacher- training programs should make every effort to strengthen and adjust them to the needs of the nations.
1.5 Research Questions
This study will be guided by four questions:
Q1: Are language teachers well- equipped at knowledge level in Iran?
Q2: Are language teachers well-equipped at performance level in Iran?
Q3: Is there any relationship between teachers’ knowledge and performance level?
Q4: Can teachers’ knowledge predict their performances?
Research Hypotheses:
Based on the above-mentioned questions, the following hypotheses are proposed:
H1: The language teachers are not well-equipped at knowledge level in Iran.
H2:The language teachers are not well-equipped at performance level in Iran.
H3: There is not any relationship between teachers’ knowledge and performance level.
H4: The teachers’ knowledge cannot predict their performances.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
The researcher will come across with some limitations as below:
-In this study the subjects’ age, sex and personal variables were not controlled.
-The validity of the study was confined to the of the participants’ responses to the instruments used.
-This study was revolved around the knowledge and performance of the subjects.
-The focus of this study would be just on teacher training programs.
1.7 Delimitations of the Study
Many occupations recognize employees’ years of experience as a relevant factor in human resource policies, including compensation systems, benefits packages, and promotion decisions.
In education, teacher experience is probably the key factor in personnel policies that affect current employees. The underlying assumption is that experience promotes effectiveness.
Experience matters, but more is not always better. The impact of experience is strongest during the first few years of teaching; after that, marginal returns diminish, on average, teachers with more than 20 years of experience are more effective than teachers with no experience, but are not much more effective than those with 5 years of experience (Ladd 2008).
This study investigates teachers’ knowledge and performance without considering teachers’ years of experience. It is recommended that future studies be designed to take account of years of experience of teaching.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
In this research the following technicalities need to be operationally defined: teacher education, knowledge, teacher performance, and INTASC model standards.
1.8.1 Teacher Education
The term “teacher education” was traditionally used to mean pre-service teacher preparation before being a teacher and joining the teaching profession (Al-Weher& Abu-Jaber, 2007).
1.8.2 Knowledge
Glatthorn (1990) described knowledge as the process of fitting the represented material to the characteristics of the students. The teacher must consider the relevant aspects of students’ ability, gender, language, culture, motivations, or prior knowledge and skills that will affect their responses to different forms of presentations and representations.
Teachers’ knowledge is “accumulated knowledge about the act of teaching, including the goals, procedures, and strategies that form the basis for what teachers do in the classroom.” (Mullock, 2006, p.48)
1.8.3 Teacher Performance
David and Macayan (2010) state that teacher performance is equivalent with teacher effectiveness; it goes beyond direct classroom instruction and encompasses other job facets of teachers like, collaboration with parents, other professionals, and school administrators. The concept of teacher performance also covers the teacher’s roles as citizens in classrooms and schools, communities, and society as a whole and can be assessed through its reflections on students’ progress in the academics and their development as a person. (p.68)
1.8.4 INTASC Model Standards
The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC,) a program of the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) , was established in 1987 to enhance collaboration among states interested in rethinking teacher assessment for initial licensing as well as for preparation and induction into the profession. It was established to consider what kinds of changes in licensing standards would be needed to create “Board-compatible” standards for entry into the teaching profession. These are standards that embody the kinds of knowledge, skills, and dispositions that teachers need to practice responsibly when they enter teaching and evaluate what they can actually do in authentic teaching situations.
The committee, formed in late fall of 2000, consisted of 18 members that represented a variety of national language associations, state departments of education, school districts, university teacher training programs, and private schools. This committee’s mandate was to develop model licensing standards that articulate what all beginning teachers should know and be able to do in order to effectively teach a foreign language.
Also the committee, formed in April 2011 has created a draft of model licensing standards for new foreign language teachers based on existing standards documents, including:
-the INTASC model core standards those principles that should be present in all teaching regardless of the subject or grade level taught
– the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century
-the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
and selected state standards.
An important attribute of the standards is that they are performance-based: that is, they describe what teachers should know and be able to do rather than listing courses that teachers should take in order to be awarded a license. This approach should clarify what the criteria are for assessment and licensing, placing more emphasis on the abilities teachers develop than the hours they spend taking classes. Ultimately, performance- based licensing standards should enable states to permit greater innovation and diversity in how teacher education programs operate by assessing their outcomes rather than their inputs or procedures.
The standards were developed in response to the five major propositions that guide the National Board’s standard-setting and assessment work:
-Teachers are committed to students and their learning
-Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to diverse learners
-Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning-
-Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
There is the preamble about the process of teaching based on the document of INTASC model:
-All children have the potential to learn rigorous content and achieve high standards and educational system must guarantee a learning environment in which all children can learn and achieve their own kind of individually configured excellence .The environment that nurtures their unique talents and creativity; understands, respects, and incorporates the diversity of their experiences into the learning process; and cultivates their personal commitment to enduring habits of life-long learning.
-The standards and opportunities should enable teachers to support the intellectual, social, emotional, moral, and physical development of students, respond with flexibility and professional judgment to their different needs; and actively engage them in their own learning so that they can use and generate knowledge in effective and powerful ways.
-Teaching and learning comprise a holistic process that connects ideas and disciplines to each other and to the personal experiences environments, and communities of students. Consequently, the process of teaching must be dynamic and reciprocal, responding to the many contexts within which students learn. Such teaching demands that teachers integrate their knowledge of subjects, students, the community, and curriculum to create a bridge between learning goals and learners’ lives.
– Professional teachers assume roles that extend beyond the classroom and include responsibilities for connecting to parents and other professionals, developing the school as a learning organization, and using community resources to foster the education and welfare of students.
-Teachers’ professional development is a dynamic process extending from initial preparation over the course of an entire career. Professional teachers are responsible for planning and pursuing their ongoing learning, for reflecting with colleagues on their practice, and for contributing to the profession’s

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