منابع پایان نامه درمورد teacher education، Perception، motivation

performance will increase and vice verse.
In order to answer the fourth question, this study set out to determine the prediction of English teachers’ performance in relation to their knowledge. In order to investigate whether knowledge components predict performance or not, the regression analyses helped the researcher to understand the amount of prediction. It is now possible to state that: When the teachers’ knowledge is considered as a variable, their performance level can be predicted .The amount of this prediction is .29%. This sentence means that the degree of prediction of teachers’ performance is 29 percent by teachers’ knowledge.
5.3 Conclusions and Discussion
It is generally acknowledged that promoting teacher quality is a key element in improving education in every country. Indeed, one of the primary goals of every education system is to have a “highly qualified teacher” in every classroom. In this study the researcher focused on the level of teachers’ knowledge and performance.
The presented results showed that the language teachers are well-equipped at knowledge and performance levels in Iran, but these successes must be balanced against in other curricular domains. In this work, for example, the researcher did not know how the teachers with strong knowledge represent content to students in real situations. The main conclusion to be made from recent research is that teacher education is of great importance for students achievement.
In addition to the mentioned results which used for rejecting the null hypotheses, other conclusions to be made from recent research are the strong and weak points about language teachers’ knowledge and performance.
The first strong point that can conclude from this study is about items 8,10, and 11 of knowledge questionnaire, according to the results of these items the teachers understand how students differ in their approaches to learning and create instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners. We can conclude that language teachers recognize that many different factors may influence students’ approaches to language learning, including differences in learning styles and multiple intelligences; learning needs; cultural, linguistic, prior learning experiences; and personal interests, needs, and goals. Language teachers take this diversity into account when planning instruction for all learners.
The second strong point is about the results of item 40 of performance questionnaire. It showed that the language teachers can plan instruction based upon subject matter, students, and curriculum goals. They can create short-range and long-term plans that are linked to student needs, and adapt the plans to students progress.
As mentioned earlier there were some weak points at knowledge and performance level of the language teachers too. The first weak point, based on the item 29 of the knowledge questionnaire, is about the teachers’ relationships with others. According to the result of this item, the teachers do not really know how to foster their relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support students’ learning and well-being. Language teachers should know that they do not work in isolation and that their students, classrooms, and schools are situated within wider social networks. The school principals recognize their responsibility to develop relationships with colleagues by providing the opportunities at schools.
The next weak point is about data which gathering through item 14 of the knowledge questionnaire which climes that about 60% of the language teachers who participated in this study should not learn different strategies that can effectively convey their message and encourage students to negotiate meaning with each other. The teachers should learn and use a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students’ development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills, of course it is important for policy makers to solving.
In addition the results of item 3of the performance questionnaire showed that 57.5% of the participants do not familiarize with the curriculum materials and cannot choose the best for teaching the particular points. Instructors of teacher education programs must bridge the gap between theory and practice by providing opportunities for reflective teaching. In addition opportunities must be provided for student teachers to practice their theories in real situations.
Teacher education is doing its best to prepare quality teachers. To ensure that the process of preparing these teachers goes smoothly and ultimately obtains quality education, several issues have to be taken into consideration. Since our move to quality education has taken the learner-centered approach in teaching and learning, the environment that suits the application of these current theories must be improved. Teacher educators need in-service training to be able to manage classes and the teaching and learning process under the new approach. The curriculum content for teacher education has to be readjusted so that it fits into the allocated time more practically than theoretically. Moreover, necessary facilities like books have to be made available at the required number and relevance.
This paper is offered as a first step along the road to developing such measures, but much more work is needed. Indeed, such studies are necessary at least every two or three years to design the programs by making important changes or even to redesign them. This kind of research considers as a key for policy makers to reform educational programs that will lead to increase in teacher quality.
5.4 Pedagogical Implications
The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future practice. We need to accept that education starts with teachers and they are the most significant ring in the educational chain. Therefore, people in charge should give more attention to teachers.
Today technology is a crucial parameter in teaching and learning. Therefore, teacher education systems must utilize these instruments to enhance teacher learning.
Teacher preparation programs must respond with data-driven means of improvement. As the attempts are made to improve schools and school systems with increased student achievement. Teachers are the most important factor in improving schools and teacher preparation programs have a unique opportunity to have a significant impact on teacher quality. Teacher quality includes the areas of knowledge and performance. There are currently tests and instruments available to assess abilities in these two categories and there is a need to be able to use their results as well. Workshops are held to demonstrate lessons and address trainees’ individual problems related to practice teaching. Opportunities must be provided for t teachers to observe methods of successful teachers in teaching with innovative thinking and flexible communication which grow from technological expertise are needed.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
This study was focused on teachers’ knowledge and performance and there were many research findings have found that about EFL teacher training needs, pre-service teacher preparatory programs, and the impact of the experience on teaching in Iran, but having a close look at the educational system, it reveals a number of short comings in EFL instruction in schools. One of the shortcomings is the quality of EFL classes in schools .
English courses are introduced to students the first year of middle school, that is, after finishing the elementary school students to the last year of high school when the students receive their Diploma .It has been observed that even after many years of studying English at school (around 7 years) the students lack primary requirements of being proficient language users. They are not capable of communicating the smallest amounts of ideas in this language and what they know is merely the grammatical rules of the language without any ability to use these rules. It is recommended that further research be undertaken in the following areas:
the roots of this problem can be attributed to the low quality of EFL teaching in schools, the ESP classes in universities, in-service training programs, and student dispositions.
The current study has only surveyed two characteristics of teachers without considering the years of experience, it is recommended that future studies be designed to investigate other teachers’ characteristics more precisely. The hope is that the kind of investigation described in this study can contribute to the improvement of teacher quality.
REFRENCES
Abbitt, M. (2011).The relationship of teachers’ and students’ motivation in ELT in Malta: A mixed methods study.Unpublished Doctoraldissertation. University of Nottingham, England
Adediwura, A. A., &Tayo, B. (2007).Perception of teachers’ knowledge, attitude and teaching skills as predictor of academic performance in Nigerian secondary schools.Educational Research and Review, 2 (7), 165-171. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/err/…/Adediwura%20and%20Tayo.pdf
Al-Hinai, A. M. (2007). The interplay between culture, teacher professionalism and teachers’ professional development at times of change.In T. Townsend, & R. Bates (Eds.), Handbook of teacher education (pp. 41-52). Netherlands: Springer.
Aleotti, M., N. (1991). Teacher education in Brazil:

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