Gt. Britain, (1969)
 Martin E. True, P. D. Weiner, A Laboratory evaluation of sand erosion of oil and gas well producing equipment, Texas A & M University, College Station, Tex as (1987)
 E.S. Venkatesh, Erosion Damage in Oil and Gas Wells, Proc. Rocky Mountain Meeting of SPE, Billings, MT (1986) 489–497. May 19-21.
 Ken Jordan, Erosion in multiphase production of oil and gas, Shell Offshore Incorporated, One Shell Square, P.O. Box 61933, New Orleans, LA 70161, (1998)
 T. Bourgoyne, Experimental Study of Erosion in Diverter Systems. SPE/IADC
18716, Proc SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, 28 February – 3 March,
pp. 807–816, 1989.
 A.V. Levy, Erosion and Erosion-Corrosion of Metals, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, (1995)
 S.A. Shirazi, SPE, U of Tulsa; B.S. McLaury, U of Tulsa; E.Sow, BG Group; M. Butter, Rashpetco; A. Folefac, Rashpetco; S.A. Hassaballa, SPE, Rashpetco, Sand Settling and Locations of High Erosion in Subsea Production System, Trinidad, 27-30 june (2010)
 Chong Wong, Jie Wu, Amir Zamberi, Chris Sornordal, Lachlan Graham, Sand Erosion Modelling, SPE 132920, Australia, October (2010)
 M.M. Salama, E.S. Venkatesh, Evaluation of API RP 14E erosional velocity limitation for offshore gas wells, in: proceedings of offshore Technology Conference, Houston, TX, 1983, OTC 4485.
 IPS, IPS – E – PI -140, Iranian Petroleum of Society, Engineering Standard for Onshore Transportation Pipelines
 API, API RP 14E Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping System, 3rd edition, American Petroleum Institute (1981)1981;22
 Amin Nabipour, Brian Evans, Mohammad Sarmadivaleh, Methods for Measurement of Solid Particles in Hydrocarbon Flow Streams, SPE, Curtin University, Chris Kalli, SPE, Chevron ETC, Australia, October 2012.
 N.A. Barton, Erosion in elbows in hydrocarbon production systems: Review ducument, TUVNEL limited, Scottish Enter Prise Technology Park, East kilbride, glasgow, G75 QU, 2012
 Mehdi Azimian, Hans-Jörg Bart, Investigation of Hydroabrasion in Slurry Pipeline Elbows and T-junctions, Chair of Separation Science and Technology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern D-67663, Germany, January 2014.
 S.A. Shirazi, B.S. McLaury, J.R. Shadley, E.F. Rybicki, Generalization of the API RP 14E Guideline for Erosive Services, SPE28518, Journal of Petroleum Technology, August 1995 (1995) 693–698.
 R.D. Russell, S.A. Shirazi, J. Macrae, A new computational fluid dynamics model to predict flow profiles and erosion rates in downhole completion equipment, in: SPE Annual Technical Conference/Exhibition, Houston, Texas, SPE Paper No. SPE90734, 2004.
 A. Huser, O. Kvernvold, Prediction of Sand Erosion in Process and Pipe Components, Proc. 1st North American Conference on Multiphase Technology, Banff, Canada, pp. 217–227 (1998).
 B.S. McLaury, S.A. Shirazi, Is API RP 14E reliable for predicting an erosional production velocity when sand production is anticipated?, in: Proceedings of ETCE/OMAE Joint Conference, New Orleans, LA, Feb. 14-17, 2000.
 M.M. Salama, An alternative to API 14E erosional velocity limits for sand laden fluids, ASME J. Energy Res. Tech. 122 (2000) 71-77.
 X.Chen, B.S.McLaury, S.A.Shirazi, A comprehensive procedure to estimate erosion in elbows for gas / liquid / sand multiphase flow, J.Energy Resour. Technol. 128(2005)70–78.
 DNV, Recommended Practice RP 0501 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems, Revision 4.2-2007, Det Norske Veritas, 2011.
 B.S. McLaury, J. Wang, S.A. Shirazi, J.R. Shadley, E.F. Rybicki, Solid Particle Erosion in Long Radius Elbows and Straight Pipes, SPE 38842, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 1997.
 Finnie I., (1960). “Erosion of Surface by Solid Particles”, Wear, 3, 87-103
 Yong, Bai. Qiang, Bai. (2012). Subsea Engineering Handbook, first edition. Houston, Texas, Gulf Publishing Company.
 S.J. Svedeman, K.E. Arnold, Criteria for Sizing Multiphase Flow Lines for Erosive/ Corrosive Service, SPE 26569, 68th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Houston, Texas, 1993.
 J.G.A. Bitter, A study of erosion phenomena, Part I, Wear, 6 (1963). 5-21
 G. L. Sheldon and I. Finnie, J. Eng. Ind., 88 (1966) 387 – 392.
 Wang J, Shirazi S, Shadley J, Rybicki E. Application of flow modeling and particle tracking to predict sand erosion rates in elbows. ASME FED 1996;236:725–34.
. ساعتچی، احمد (1365). مهندسی خوردگی. چاپ اول. اصفهان: جهاد دانشگاهی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان
Experimental Study of Liquid & Sand Erosion in Pipe Lines
Mehdi Mohammadi Rahaghi
In this work the created erosion by the movement of two phase fluids in pipelines has been investigated. The main fluid is consisted of liquid and solid phase. The liquid phase is water, and the solid phase is sand particles. In this work, the effective parameters on erosion rate such as: fluid velocity, sand size, sand concentration, hardness and density of metal, have been studied. To find out the erosion rate, ring coupons of two kind of carbon steel and aluminium in six different location in pipe line (in accordance with operational production and oil material transition) have been employed.
At first, liquid erosion velocities (single phase) are measured in six locations. And in next stage, erosion of two phase fluid has been evaluated. In each stages, the data which are obtained from experiments are compared with available standard data and some recommendations are proposed. Then a mathematical model for evaluation of erosion rate by means of experimental data and use of genetic algorithm in MATLAB software (differential evolution method) has been presented. By comparison of mathematical model with experimental data, we find out that the proposed model is able to predict the experimental data with good Satisfaction.
Key words: sand erosion, ring coupon, erosion rate, genetic algorithm.
Faculty of Gas, Petroleum and Chemical Engineering
M.Sc. Thesis in Chemical Engineering
Experimental study of liquid & sand erosion in pipe lines
Mehdi Mohammadi Rahaghi
Dr. Fereydoun Esmaielzadeh
Dr. Daryoosh Mowla
1 Gas condensate
1 Natural gas
1 H__ S
1 Galvanic corrosion
1 Uniform corrosion
1 Concentration cell corrosion
1 Pitting corrosion
1 Stainless steel
1 Intergranular corrosion
1 Stress corrosion
1 Erosion Corrosion
1 Full bore
1 Mitre elbow
1 Sand erosion
1 Liquid droplet erosion
1 Erosion corrosion
1 Slug flow
1 Sand concentration
1 Thershold velocity
1 Critical velocity
1 Micro meter
1 Single phase
1 Sand plug
1 Carbon steel
1 Brittle materials
1 Ductile materials
1 Gas condensate
1 Shinoo gaya
1 Salama & Venkatesh
1 Eswedimen & Arnold
1 Ultrasonic signal
1 Electrical resistance probe
1 Electrochemical probe
1 Gama & X Ray Topography (GRT)
1 Disc coupon
1 Strip or blade Coupon
1 Coupon holder
1 ER Probe
1 Sensing Element
1 Uniform distribution
1 Intrusive probe
1 SEM Analyse
1 Slug Catcher
1 Tungstan Carbide
1 Computational Fluid Dynamic
1 Brittle material
1 Ductile material
1 Tulsa University
1 Erosion/Corrosion Research Center
1 Sand Production Pipe Saver
1 Mc Laury
1 Semi rounded
1 Set up
1 Coupon Holder
1 Fully develop
1 Flow rate
1 Design of experiment
1 Genetic Algorithm
1 Reynolds Number
1 SEM Analysis
1 Cost Function
1 Random Answer
1 Differential Evolution
1 Selection function
Gt. Britain, (1969)